If we address to written sources we can state, that Kazakhs’ State system developed until 1470, when Kazakh sultans Zhanibek and Kerei could lead numerous tribes, united into a tribe of "Kazakh", "the Kazakhs" on the territory of Kazakhstan, in its South-East regions - Semirechje and the Chu Valley. At first, the term "Cossack" had only a social meaning and meant the group of nomads, engaged in military occupation or separated from the main part of the state without admitting the central power. Therefore the group of nomads, wandered with с Zhanibek and Kerei to Mongolistan was called "Kazakh". The Khanate founded by them was called "Kazakh".
Since then the meaning of the word "Cossack" began to change. It changed from a social term into a political one and began to denote the subjects of Kazakh khanate. Having got free from khans the nomads stopped to name themselves "Cossacks" and became "nogaily", and having taken out citizenship from khans they became "Cossacks" again. Only after uniting all Nogai tribes within Kazakh khanate the term "Cossacks" changed from political into ethnic and became the name of all Kypchaks and Nogais’ tribes and clans. However official quarts preferred to use the term “Alty Alash” for denominating Kazakh nation till the XX century. This term was common for the Nogais and Kazakhs.
Sultans Zhanibek and Kerei wandered from Abulhair and settled down in Western Zhetysu. The khan of Mongolistan Esen-Buga, who fought with his brother Junuce and tried to preserve the ruined state, did not have real power to stop the adherents of Zhanibek and Kerei and in 1459 he had to give them the territory in the Chu Valley. The nomads, settled down in Zhetysu, got the nickname "Cossacks", which later on applied to all subjects of Zhanibek and Kerei and changed into the name of the nation gradually.
In sixties-seventies of the XV century three new states inhabited by the Kazakhs appeared on the political map of Eurasia. Mangyt state occupied the steppes from the Yedil to the Nura and the Yesil rivers, the Aral territory and Mangystau. The clans of the Mangyts, Alshyns, Tamas, Kereis, Naimans, Kypchaks lived there. The territories north of the Nura, the Valleys of the Tobol, Esil and the Ertys belonged to Siberian khanate. The Kereis, Naimans, Wakies and Kypchaks were the main support of this Khanate. Finally, Zhetysu, the Syrdaria-river and Sarysu-river valleys belonged to the territory of Kazakh khanate, inhabited by the Argyns, Dulats, Kanglies and Zhalairs.
At the beginning of the XVI century Kazakh khanate became stronger under Kasymkhan. Syrdarian cities Turkestan, Otrar, Sairam, Sauran, Sygnak, Suzak, Shymkent became the part of the Khanate. Kazakhstan became well-known in Asia and Europe.
The Kazakh khanate existed until 1716 when Taukekhan, the last khan of all the Kazakhs, died and numerous steppe khans, who governed small groups of Kazakhs on small areas, took over the power. This was the beginning of disintegration and recession, which resulted in joining of the khanate to the Russian Empire.
On August 19, 1991 the try of the state revolution happened in Moscow in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which Kazakhstan belonged to. In September 1991 it was decided about the dissolution of communist party of Kazakhstan. On December 16, 1991 the Independence Law of Kazakhstan was passed (with the force of the Constitutional Law). And in 1991 a new state – the Republic of Kazakhstan – appeared on the geopolitical map of the world, a unitary state with the presidential form of government. The Republic of Kazakhstan asserts itself as a democratic, secular, legal and social state, the highest values of which are people, their lives, rights and freedoms.